# Mathematics III Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions

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Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials. [Beyond quadratic]
1. Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of
Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials.
2. Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x).
3. Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of
the function defined by the polynomial.
Use polynomial identities to solve problems.
4. Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity
(x2 + y2)2= (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples.
5. (+) Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where
x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal’s Triangle. The Binomial Theorem can be proved by mathematical induction or by a combinatorial argument.
Rewrite rational expressions. [Linear and quadratic denominators]
6. Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x),
and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more
complicated examples, a computer algebra system.
7. (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.