English 11-12 Language


Language Standards Grades 11-12


Conventions of Standard English

L.11-12.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. tools-icon
a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. tools-icon
b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed. tools-icon
L.11-12.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. tools-icon
a. Observe hyphenation conventions. tools-icon
b. Spell correctly. tools-icon

Knowledge of Language

L.11-12.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. tools-icon
a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading. tools-icon

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

L.11-12.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. tools-icon
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. tools-icon
b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable). tools-icon
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage. tools-icon
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). tools-icon
L.11-12.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. tools-icon
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text. tools-icon
b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. tools-icon
L.11-12.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. tools-icon
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